Informatica Economica Vol. XII No. 2/2008


World Wide Web Metasearch Clustering Algorithm
Adina Lipai 5

As the storage capacity and the processing speed of search engine is growing to keep up with the constant expansion of the World Wide Web, the user is facing an increasing list of results for a given query. A simple query composed of common words sometimes have hundreds even thousands of results making it practically impossible for the user to verify all of them, in order to identify a particular site. Even when the list of results is presented to the user ordered by a rank, most of the time it is not sufficient support to help him identify the most relevant sites for his query. The concept of search result clustering was introduced as a solution to this situation. The process of clustering search results consists of building up thematically homogenous groups from the initial list results provided by classic search tools, and using up characteristics present within the initial results, without any kind of predefined categories.
Keywords: search results, clustering algorithm, World Wide Web search.

Linearized Credibility Formula for Exponentially Weighted Squared Error Loss Function
Virginia Atanasiu 12

Is an original paper, which describes techniques for estimating premiums for risks, containing a fraction (a part) of the variance of the risk as a loading on the net risk premium.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P05.
Keywords: the linearized credibility formula, the best risk premium – in the sense of the minimal weighted mean squared error -, variance premium.

E-ServEval: a system for quality evaluation of the on-line public services
Alexandru Balog, Grigore Bădulescu, Revişoara Bădulescu, Florin Petrescu 18

This paper describes the objectives, the general architecture and the components of the web-based system for quality evaluation of the on-line public services developed using the framework of the complex research project “System for quality evaluation of the on-line public services for citizens and business environment (e-ServEval)”. The paper also presents the technological options regarding the design and development of the system, the functions of the components and the aspects regarding the interface between user and e-ServEval system. Finally, the stage of the project and the conclusions are presented.
Keywords: e-government, e-government services quality, quality evaluation.

Multi-Level Model
Constanţa-Nicoleta Bodea 22

Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always be enough data to apply credibility theory to a real insurance portfolio.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P05.
Keywords: hierarchical structure with three levels, observable variables with associated weights, the credibility results.

Denoising Techniques Based on the Multiresolution Representation
Catalina COCIANU, Luminiţa STATE, Viorica ŞTEFANESCU, Panayiotis VLAMOS 29

So far, considerable research efforts have been invested in the are of using statistical methods for image processing purposes yielding to a significant amount of models that aim to improve as much as possible the still existing and currently used processing techniques, some of them being based on using wavelet representation of images. Among them the simplest and the most attractive one use the Gaussian assumption about the distribution of the wavelet coefficients. This model has been successfully used in image denoising and restoration. The limitation comes from the fact that only the first-order statistics of wavelet coefficients are taking into account and the higher-order ones are ignored. The dependencies between wavelet coefficients can be formulated explicitly, or implicitly. The multiresolution representation is used to develop a class of algorithms for noise removal in case of normal models. The multiresolution algorithms perform the restoration tasks by combining, at each resolution level, according to a certain rule, the pixels of a binary support image. The values of the support image pixels are either 1 or 0 depending on their significance degree. At each resolution level, the contiguous areas of the support image corresponding to 1-value pixels are taken as possible objects of the image. Our work reports two attempts in using the multiresolution based algorithms for restoration purposes in case of normally distributed noise. Several results obtained using our new restoration algorithm are presented in the final sections of the paper.
Keywords: multiresolution support, wavelet transform, filtering techniques, statistically significant wavelet coefficients.

SOA, SoBI & EDA – Paradigms for Integration Capabilities of BI Platform
Bogdan Ghilic-MICU, Marian Stoica, Marinela Mircea 36

A Business Intelligence (BI) provider may offer a basic solution, a packed application or a comprising BI platform which integrates components from individual technologies in a synergic system.  The providers’ tendency is to standardize the instruments offered on a single server platform. The article analyzes the integration capabilities and problems of BI platforms, emphasizes the differences between emergent technologies and suggests integration solutions. The analysis is useful both to the providers of BI solutions – in order to develop some agile platforms, as well as to their users – representing an important factor in selecting the solution. In addition, the conclusions to be drawn will emphasize the tendencies from the BI market and will represent the support in creating some agile platforms.
Keywords: Business Intelligence, agile platform, integration, metadata management, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Event Driven Architecture (EDA).

Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.
Keywords: data structures, distributed applications, aggregation.

Internet Banking integration within the banking system
Constantin Marian Matei, Cătălin Ionuţ Silvestru, Dragoş Ştefan Silvestru 55

Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application  through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.
Keywords: Internet Banking, SOA, architecture, front-end, back-end, Banking Systems.

Knowledge Management in E-Learning Systems

Current knowledge management systems focus on knowledge acquisition, storage, retrieval and maintenance. Yet, for that knowledge to be operational, to become knowledge rather than information, requires internalization and learning. E- learning systems and courseware, on the other hand, are all too often monolithic and inert and fail to facilitate the development and sharing of knowledge. In this paper we discuss some aspects about knowledge providing and present our research in this field through an e-learning system for major risks management.
Keywords: Knowledge, management, e-learning, information, data, simulation, case study.

Java ME Clients for XML Web Services

Using Web services in developing applications has many advantages like the existence of standards, multiple software platforms that support them, and many areas of usage. These advantages derive from the XML and Web technologies. This paper describes the stages in the development of a Web service client for Java ME platform and presents examples based on kSOAP and JSR 172.
Keywords: Web services, mobile applications, Java ME, SOAP, XML, m-learning.

Identity Management in University System
Emanuil REDNIC, Manole VELICANU 71

The Identity Management became to be a real and important problem for distributed environments. First off all the access to distributed resources, the distributed communication, virtual workspaces, virtual repositories influence in developing this field of security. How this all started? How this can be implemented? How this can be maintained in a distributed environment?
Keywords: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Identity Management.

Intrusion Detection using Open Source Tools
Jack Timofte 75

We have witnessed in the recent years that open source tools have gained popularity among all types of users, from individuals or small businesses to large organizations and enterprises. In this paper we will present three open source IDS tools: OSSEC, Prelude and SNORT.
Keywords: Network security, IDS, IPS, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, open source.

Secure Electronic Cards in Public Services
Cristian Toma, Marius Popa, Cătălin Boja, Miruna Vasilache 80

The paper presents the electronic wallet solution implemented within a GSM SIM technology for accessing public services. The solution is implemented in the medical field to provide information on the patient’s medical history and payment for private medical services. The security issue is a very important one as the patient’s history is confidential and the payment has to be safe.
Keywords: public services, mobile, security, m-application, smart card. 

Inclusive Information Technologies

Software Products Accessibility Evaluation Metrics
Alexandru Bărbulescu 86

In this article I will present the interface facilities, their quantification and the measure factors required for a software product to be classified as accessible and easy to use by persons with disabilities. The metrics proposed will take into consideration the accessibility necessities for persons with seeing, hearing and movement disabilities who cannot use software products without these facilities. They will also consider the persons without disabilities, whose work becomes easier by using these facilities.
Keywords: Metrics, accessibility facilities, accessible interfaces.

Software System for Vocal Rendering of Printed Documents
Marian DÂRDALĂ 90

The objective of this paper is to present a software system architecture developed to render the printed documents in a vocal form. On the other hand, in the paper are described the software solutions that exist as software components and are necessary for documents processing as well as for multimedia device controlling used by the system. The usefulness of this system is for people with visual disabilities that can access the contents of documents without that they be printed in Braille system or to exist in an audio form.
Keywords: accessibility, TWAIN, OCR, TTS, SAPI.

Dynamic Programming Algorithms in Speech Recognition
Titus Felix FURTUNĂ 94

In a system of speech recognition containing words, the recognition requires the comparison between the entry signal of the word and the various words of the dictionary. The problem can be solved efficiently by a dynamic comparison algorithm whose goal is to put in optimal correspondence the temporal scales of the two words. An algorithm of this type is Dynamic Time Warping. This paper presents two alternatives for implementation of the algorithm designed for recognition of the isolated words.
Keywords: dynamic programming, speech recognition, word detection.

Making More Efficient the Dissemination of the Information in the Field of Anti-Aging through Information Technology
Marilena IANCULESCU, Monica PÂRVAN 99

ICT have become extremely important because they allow everybody to participate at the Information Society, in spite of under-privileged personal or social situation. Health Education Informatics Systems (HEIS), as a method for facilitating the exchange of information between specialists, physicians and patients, or authorized organisations, become a necessary modern tool which offer quality solutions, a correct source of information and pertinent instrument for taking decisions. The members of the aging society must be motivated to have access through ICT at knowledge that can improve and prolong the active life. The dramatic demographic transformations of our century have imposed the reconsideration of the social policies and of the use of HEIS for disseminating the anti-aging information, for empowering the person regarding his own state of health, and also for the real involving of the elderly in using the Internet. AgingNice is a multidisciplinary complex system that belongs to the health informatics systems with particularization in the anti-aging domain and that allows the sharing of the knowledge concerning the specific research and the promotion of the theoretical and practical information, both among the stakeholders from the medical area and at the person level.
Keywords: anti-aging, elderly, ICT, health informatics systems, web services

Building Domain Specific Languages for Voice Recognition Applications
Cristian IONIŢĂ 105

This paper presents a method of implementing the voice recognition for the control of software applications. The solutions proposed are based on transforming a subset of the natural language in commands recognized by the application using a formal language defined by the means of a context free grammar. At the end of the paper is presented the modality of integration of voice recognition and of voice synthesis for the Romanian language in Windows applications.
Keywords: voice recognition, formal languages, context free grammars, text to speech.

Emotions in human-computer interaction: the role of nonverbal behaviour in interactive systems

Until recently, the area of human-computer interaction was based on a traditional, cognitive approach, which separated the study of usability from that of emotions. The recent research has shown that emotions play an important role in our life, which led to focusing on the need of studying the emotions in the domain of interactive design. This paper underlines the role of emotions as part of the interactive human-computer process, reinstating the importance of nonverbal communication in this domain. The main issues of this paper are concerned with aspects such as: emotional design approach, the importance of nonverbal as an instrument of usability evaluation and the role of emotions in human-computer interaction.
Keywords: Emotional design approach, nonverbal communication, emotions, usability, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI).

Content Accessibility of Web documents. Principles and Recommendations
Elena JITARU, Adriana ALEXANDRU 117

The paper is an overview of issues related to the accessibility of Web sites, of European initiatives and recommendations in the field, of future solutions, such as developing Web 2.0 accessible applications with WAI-ARIA. As part of the Pro-Inclusiv project was included a set of accessibility recommendations to design web sites, recommendations presented in the paper.
Keywords: Web accessibility, users with disabilities, standards and recommendations.

Methods and Techniques for the Access of Persons With Visual Impairments to Handbooks and Textbooks
Marian PĂDURE 125

The transformation of learning materials in an accessible format for blind students allows them to access texts and graphics. This access was not possible before considering the past technologies. The Daisy format represents an accessibility standard that permits the visually impaired person to listen an audio book as a person without disability. In this way, the visually impaired person can listen the audio book according to its content and/or pages. The usage of this format enables to develop new approaches in the process of teaching and learning, not only for visually impaired students but also for visually impaired teachers. The Daisy format proved to be efficient in the educational area also for children with learning difficulties. Studies concerned with efficiency of Daisy book.
Keywords Daisy, visual impairment, access technologies, accessible audio books.

Visualization of Accessible Multimedia Content in Web Pages
Adriana Reveiu, Traian Surcel 130

Multimedia content still presented on the web sites. The visualization of multimedia content by the users with disabilities, those that usually use screen readers, is extremely difficult. With the onset of the audio sequence of multimedia presentation it is difficult for users with visual impairs to listen the audio component of presentation and the audio version of the screen readers too, because the two audio streams cannot be controlled using only one volume control. Therefore, because of the difficulties to control the available audio streams and because of the difficulties to access the control buttons by people with disabilities, the multimedia content is often inaccessible for users with visual problems. More than this, the use of dynamic users’ interfaces is a critical problem because the screen-readers cannot detect the dynamics in content changes. The current paper presents some solutions for multimedia content production and distribution in distributed multimedia web presentations.
Keywords: Accessible multimedia content, Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange.

Assistive Technologies

A special place into assistive technologies is taken up by the speech recognition and speech synthesizer, which can be used by many different users, persons with visual, language or mobility disabilities. For many years soft developers have been concerned by speech recognition and text-to-speech because we assist to great changes in informatics area and accessibility is the main condition in the creation of assistive software applications.
Keywords : speech recognition, text-to-speech, assistive technologies, accessibility.

Inclusive Design in Assisted Instruction
Gabriel ZAMFIR 140

Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation [1]. The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes [2]. While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE) considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments [3]. This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.
ACM Classification: K.3.1. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).
Keywords: information gap, concept map, active learning design, student-centred learning.

Inforec Association 146