Informatica Economica Vol. XI No. 4/2007


A classification of european cities On the basis of e-images
Galit Cohen, Peter Nijkamp 5

Abstract: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major enabling technology that is nowadays very much ‘en vogue’. It has also become an important tool to promote a variety of business goals and public policies. The growing importance of ICT in daily life, business activities and governance prompts the need to consider ICT more explicitly in local policies. The expected benefits from ICT encourage urban policy-makers to formulate proper strategies for public ICT policies. But, what are the urban policy-makers’ expectations about ICT? And how do they assess the future implications of ICT for their city? This paper is focusing on the way urban decision-makers perceive the opportunities of modern ICT and its related ICT policy. By highlighting the importance of understanding the decision-maker’s ‘black box’ on ICT, we will address three crucial issues in European cities, viz. perception of the city, attitude towards ICT, and assessment of the relevance of ICT policy. We will give an operational meaning to these three variables by using a survey comprising more than 200 European cities as the basis for a classification of these cities by means of their e-images.
Keywords: ICT policy, public policy-making, urban policies, factor analysis, cluster analysis.

Clusters – the concept and Polish experiences
Ewa BOJAR, Matylda Bojar 14

Abstract: The first economic clusters appeared more than 200 years ago when classical economists noted that businesses are spread unevenly and concentrated in certain geographical areas. Even today, concentration of competing and collaborating businesses is something that differentiates geographical regions. However, it was M. Porter who coined the term cluster in 1990 when he presented his new theory on business operations. As defined by Porter, a cluster is ‘a group of interrelated enterprises located in a certain geographical area, comprising specialized suppliers and service providers operating in related sectors of economy as well as linked institutions like universities, standardization institutions, and trade associations. In certain areas they compete, while in others cluster participants collaborate closely.

Computer Aided Education System SuperTest. Present and Prospective
Dumitru Todoroi, Elena Nechita, Zinaida Todoroi Gloria Cerasela Crişan, Olga Chicu, Iulian Marius Furdu 22

Abstract:This paper analyzes the testing and self-testing process for the Computer Aided Education System (CAES) SuperTest, used at the Academy of Economic Studies of Chişinău, Moldova and recently implemented at the University of Bacău, Romania. We discuss here the future of this software, from the Information Society and Knowledge Society point of view.
Keywords: computer aided, education, knowledge.

Role of Research and Development in the 21st Century
Adrienn CZÁRL, Mária BELOVECZ  25

Abstract: For the countries the importance of Research and Development has increased lately. In order to strengthened the economy of that given country more input are needed towards to these direction. Those countries that support researches could achieve higher GDP, which is an important issue. So these questions stepped into spotlight to try to close up the gap between the different levels of development.
In the fist part of the paper the current EU Regulation was in spotlight. An observation was made to point out the lower R&D role than desired by the EU itself. With calculations of the different origin of sources and their relationship with the GDP per person we would like to point out the importance of the research and investment level in the future growing.
Keywords: R&D, Efficiency, GDP, Business sources.

What Is Wrong With K-Everything?
Marin FOTACHE 29

Abstract: The flood of books, papers, conferences, and workshops about knowledge management, knowledge economy, knowledge workers, and knowledge society is incessant. Europe wants to become the best knowledge-based economy in the world. Millions of Euros are pumped every year in national and international research projects dedicated to k-something. This paper is in a certain way against the grain, aiming to demythologize some of the k-excitement.
Keywords: knowledge-based, knowledge management, knowledge economy, knowledge society

Managing Knowledge within the Small and Midsized Companies
Vasile AVRAM, Diana AVRAM 33

Abstract: In the post decade the business environment was altered with direct impact to the way business organized and managed. The ability to capture and harness corporate knowledge has become critical for firms as they seek to adapt to changes in the business environment. Business rules management systems [BRMS] allows separating out the business logic and changing rules without impacting the remainder of the application, offering in that way a solution to faster adapt the informatic systems to changes. BRMS adds decision capabilities to application and workflow-type processes. Generally, small to midsized business budgets don’t allow for rip-and-replace approach and the software licensing can be prohibitive and restrictive too, leaving to that few options for complete information management. This paper introduces business rules, business rules management system together with a cheaper solution that can be used by almost small and midsized companies to manage their knowledge and support the decision making process.
Keywords: knowledge management, business rules, business rules management system.

Steganographically Encoded Data

Abstract: Steganography is the art of hiding information in ways that prevent its detection. Though steganography is an ancient craft, the onset of computer technology has given it new life. Computer-based steganographic techniques introduce changes to digital covers to embed information foreign to the native covers. Such information may be communicated in the form of text, binary files, or provide additional information about the cover and its owner such as digital watermarks or fingerprints. This paper explains steganography, provides a brief history and describes how steganography is applied in hiding information in images.
Keywords: Steganography, information hiding, digital image, digital watermarking

Modeling Decisional Situations Using Morphological Analysis
Răzvan PETRUŞEL, Loredana MOCEAN 41

Abstract: This paper focuses on models of financial decisions in small and medium enterprises. The presented models are a part of a decision support system presented in the ph.d. dissertation. One of the modeling techniques used for model creation and development is morphological analysis. This technique is used for model scale reduction not by reducing the number of va-riables involved but by reducing the number of possible combinations between variables. In this paper we prove how this approach can be used in modeling financial decision problems.
Keywords: modeling, decisional situations, morphological analysis

Developing a Web Server Platform with SAPI support for AJAX RPC using JSON

Abstract: Writing a custom web server with SAPI support is a useful task which helps students and future system architects to understand the link between network programming, object oriented programming, enterprise application designing patterns and development best practices because it offers a vision upon inter-process communication and application extensibility in a distributed environment.
Keywords: Web, Server, Proxy, SAPI, HTTP, RPC, AJAX, JSON, XML.

Virtual Reality Application in a Crisis Scenario Model

Abstract: Weather changes, ecological and terrorist threats, increased mobility of the population, cross-border activities, structural changes of the wealth are actual trends in our modern world. The new risks, threats and crises which arise nowadays require modern knowledge based instruments in order to predict, to avoid, to manage and to decrease the impact of these events. These modern instruments are developed on the basis of the experience regarding a category of crises and rely on modern information technologies which offer the necessary edge.

Transforming Organisational Culture through the Impact of Information Integration
Doina FOTACHE, Magdalena DANILEŢ 54

Abstract: Over the last 2-3 decades, investments in the new information technology (NIT) have left a deep impression on the life of organisations, that goes beyond ample differences in each organisation’s degree of automatisation. Furthermore, although the generalisation of NIT investment has not produced, on short and medium term, the expected effects on financial and organisational performance, its trend has remained on the increase, and the preoccupation with the development and the implementation of new technologies remains associated with the “ice-breaker” imagine in almost any field. The ensuing connection between  NIT investment and performance is compressed in the celebrated productivity paradox (Solow’s paradox): “We can see the computer age everywhere, except for productivity statistics”. Solow contradicts the supposition that the large scale use of computers will radically and directly influence productivity. Research has demonstrated that although technology is one of the most important factors that influence productivity and that, although at least in theory, all countries have equal access to technological innovation, in fact, productivity is influenced by many other factors (acquiring physical and human capital, infrastructure, the structure of the market, demographic evolutions, the degree of competition etc). NIT has radically changed the business environment, and consequently, the organisational culture; however, this change cannot be equated with increased efficiency or increased welfare. 
Keywords: organisational culture, new information technology, integration

Indicators for Knowledge Economy
Lorena BĂTĂGAN 60

Abstract: The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become ‘the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion’. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy.
Keywords: New Society, Knowledge, Knowledge Society, Knowledge Economy, Indicators.

Analyzing the Network Response Time and Load Balancing
Mădalina MLAK 64

Abstract: This paper describes the network response time which represent a significant indicator for network performance and how load balancing can improve the network performance.
Keywords: response time, load balancing, throughput, network performance

Fuzzy modeling and bayesian inference network
Luminita STATE, Catalina COCIANU , Viorica ŞTEFĂNESCU, Panayiotis VLAMOS 68

Abstract: Data mining is an evolving and growing area of research and involves interdisciplinary research and development encompassing diverse domains. In this age of multimedia data exploration, data mining should no longer be restricted to the mining of knowledge from large volumes of high-dimensional data sets in traditional databases only. The aim of the paper is to present guidelines in fuzzy modeling, fuzzy clustering and the design of Bayesian inference networks.
Keywords: fuzzy modeling, fuzzy clustering, c-means algorithm, Bayesian networks

New Trends and Solutions in Mobile Business
Răzvan Daniel ZOTA 72

Abstract: Nowadays the business medium requires anytime and anywhere connectivity. In an increa-singly competitive business environment, more and more organizations need fast responses and instant results. Therefore, mobility changes the way companies do business; instant messaging, voice services, real-time LAN access, network access while traveling are transforming the business environment.
In this context, WLANs are critical from the business point of view. The effectiveness with which employees make decisions drives to the success or failure of the business; thus, the business must enable employees to access the information needed to exceed corporate expectations. This article presents the key characteristics of the mobile business and analyzes a possible solution offered by a giant of the networking industry.
Keywords: WLANs, Mobility, Communications, Mobile Business, Security, 802.11n

E-Business Technologies
Carmen TIMOFTE 76

Abstract: Internet technologies have revolutionized the business world by creating a global online marketplace. Appropriate understanding for the technologies and the impact of different design choices of technologies (including the Internet and open systems) dramatically affects both functional and non-functional aspects of the e-business solution.
ERP as a Support for the Knowledge Age
Razvan BOLOGA 79

Abstract: The current article presents the current situation of ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning) systems and the way these systems have been changing the global economic environment. The analysis is based on a set of statistical data originating from the corporate reports and specialized literature. A special attention is paid the competitive advantages induced by using ERP at a corporate level. As a result the article identifies the main benefits of ERP systems and indicates the advantages of using such systems at a corporate level.
Keywords: ERP, knowledge age, knowledge economy, SAP, Oracle and Peoplesoft.

Comparison of RDBMS, OODBMS and ORDBMS
Gheorghe SABĂU 83

Abstract: The presentation of the similarities and differences between relational modeling of data and the object oriented modeling of data is of great importance both for data base designers and for users.
By being well acquainted with the relational model and by noting the similarities and differ-ences between the two approaches to data modeling, designers will be able to turn into account and to make use of the already acquired experience as an important basis for understanding and learning the methodology of designing object oriented databases.
At the time if designers know the similarities and differences between these two approaches they have the possibility to convert a relational model into an object oriented model and inversely.
Keywords: RDBMS, OODBMS and ORDBMS comparatively.

Using Java Technologies in Statistics Applications Data Analysis Graphic Generator
Felix FURTUNĂ, Marian DÂRDALĂ 86

Abstract: This paper proposes an idea for building a Java Application Programming Interface (API) that allows generating statistics graphics used in Data Analysis. The core of this API is a Java 2D library, and some classes which implement the 2D geometric transformations. The classes are small, fast, easy to use and can be integrated into your projects, and are completely written in pure Java. It allows users to easily develop and deploy sophisticated reports across any plat-form.
Keywords: Java API, Data Analysis, Graphics.

Secure Architectures for Mobile Applications
Cristian TOMA 89

Abstract: The paper presents security issues and architectures for mobile applications and GSM infra-structure. The article also introduces the idea of a new secure architecture for an inter-sector electronic wallet used in payments – STP4EW (Secure Transmission Protocol for Electronic Wallet).
Keywords: secure architecture, m-application, smart-cards, 3G Mobile.

Particularities of security design for wireless networks in small and medium business (SMB)
Nicolae TOMAI 93

Abstract: Small businesses often have small budgets, which often means no fulltime IT staff or no possibility to hire a security consultant to set up a wireless LAN properly. This paper tries to develop a methodology for designing security for wireless networks in SMB.
There are more security options to choose from, when setting up a wireless network, thus the security features needed for a company must be carefully taken in consideration. The benefits from one security feature must be balanced with the implementation and maintenance cost and with the risk of not getting the security level wanted.

Optimization of Antivirus Software
Catalin BOJA, Adrian VIŞOIU 99

Abstract: The paper describes the main techniques used in development of computer antivirus software applications. For this particular category of software, are identified and defined optimum criteria that helps determine which solution is better and what are the objectives of the optimization process. From the general viewpoint of software optimization are presented methods and techniques that are applied at code development level. Regarding the particularities of antivirus software, the paper analyzes some of the optimization concepts applied to this category of applications.
Keywords: optimization, software, antivirus, optimum, criteria.

Audit Characteristics for Information System Security
Marius POPA, Mihai DOINEA 103

Abstract: The paper presents the main aspects regarding the development of the information security and assurance of their security. The information systems, standards and audit processes definitions are offered. There are presented the most important security standards used in information system security assessment.
Keywords: audit, information system, security.

Informatics Security Metrics Comparative Analysis
Ion IVAN, Luckacs BREDA 107

Abstract: The informatics security concept is defined. For informatics applications which have a classical structure, the development, current use, maintenance, and reengineering particularities are described for distributed systems and m-applications.
Metrics are built for the security of open informatics applications and a method for their validation is proposed. To see when a metric is adequate a comparative analysis is made for each indicator using a representative diversity of data sets for the test.
Keywords: security, metrics informatics, evaluation.
The Information Security Management System, Development and Audit
Traian SURCEL, Cristian AMANCEI 111

Abstract: Information security management system (ISMS) is that part of the overall management system, based on a business risk approach, that it is developed in order to establish, implement, operate, monitor, review, maintain and improve information security.
An Electronic Market Space Architecture Based On Intelligent Agents And Data Mining Technologies
Constanta BODEA, Radu Ioan MOGOS 115

Abstract: This paper presents an overview of current trends in electronic Business (E-Business), and discusses how an enterprise can use the Electronic Market space based on intelligent agents and data mining techniques to its strategic advantage. We define an agency as a multi-agent system created by integrating agents, selected from a library of reusable agents that have formed a federation. A federation of agents comprises of a set of registered agents, witch are themselves complete knowledge-based system [1].
Keywords: multi-agent system, e-business, data mining, artificial neural networks

Firewall Technologies
Gheorghe DODESCU 119

Abstract: Internet provides access to information and the ability to publish information in a revolutionary way. It is also a major danger that provides the ability to pollute and destroy information. A firewall is a form of protection that allows a network to connect to the Internet while maintaining a degree of security. In the paper we will describe the basics of firewalls and summarize what they can do and cannot do to help make sites secure.
Keywords: firewall, Internet, networks, intrusion.

IT Project Management Metrics

Abstract: Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.
Keywords: Project Management, Information Technology, Metrics, Indicators

Key players and activities across the ERP life cycle: A temporal perspective
Iuliana SCORŢA 126

Abstract: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are enterprise wide systems that, because of their integration, automate all of a company's business processes. They have rapidly become the de facto industry standard for replacement of legacy systems. In this paper I analyze using an information theory approach the temporal aspects of key players and activities specific to Romanian SME’s ERP implementations with focus on both generic and unique aspects.
Keywords: ERP life cycle, CSF, Romanian business systems implementation.

INFOREC Association 131